how does evolution explain gender

added). So to keep mitochondria in check many organisms kill the ones from their mates. Meiosis (from the Greek meaning to split), on the other hand, occurs only in sex cells (i.e., eggs and sperm); during this type of replication, only half of the chromosomal material is copied and passed on. [Commonly known as Muller’s Ratchet hypothesis, the mechanism operates like a downward ratchet on asexual populations with any deleterious mutation that occurs in a vertically transmitted organism.]. Somewhere along this evolutionary path, both males and females were required in order to ensure the procreation that was necessary to further the existence of a particular species. [RETURN TO TEXT], [15]  Reichenbach, Bruce and V. Elving Anderson, On Behalf of God, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI, p. 18. [12]  Williams’ idea was that sexual reproduction introduced genetic variety in order to enable genes to survive in changing or novel environments. Niles Eldridge, a staunch evolutionist from the American Museum of Natural History, has declared: “Sex occurs in all major groups of life.”[7]. [RETURN TO TEXT], [19]  Van Valen, Leigh, A New Evolutionary Law, Evolutionary Theory, 1:1-30, 1973. 14, p. 97. Feminist theory uses the conflict approach to examine the reinforcement of gender roles and inequalities, highlighting the role of patriarchy in maintaining the oppression of women. Research shows that females and males – including girls and boys, as well as women and men – have many psychological differences. As the evolutionary approach is a biological one, it suggests that aspects of human behavior have been coded by our genes because they were or are adaptive. Additionally, it should be noted that today we still see organisms that reproduce asexually, as well as organisms that reproduce sexually—which raises the obvious question:  Why do some organisms continue to reproduce asexually, while others have “evolved” the ability to reproduce sexually? [RETURN TO TEXT], Brad Harrub is a graduate of Kentucky Wesleyan College, where he earned a B.S. What is Gender? As Zimmer described it: The Tangled Bank Hypothesis, however, also has fallen on hard times. 2. Though plus and minus create the equal-sized sex cells, plus mates only with minus and minus with plus. Key studies and research and their conclusions about gender development. In their study, they found that the gender differences exist even across cultures, which supports the idea of an evolutionary theory of jealousy. Currently, Dr. Thompson is the Executive Director of Apologetics Press and editor of Reason & Revelation. Sporulation (the formation of spores) is one method of asexual reproduction among protozoa and certain plants. When asked whether the future of gender was evolution and extinction, Barker, Nyong’o, Wallace and Bornstein all said they hoped for extinction. No one has been able to explain—from an evolutionary viewpoint—the origin of sex, the origin of the incredibly complex meiotic process that makes sex possible, or the intricate development of the embryo (which is itself a marvel of design). Neutral mutations (which admittedly do occur) are, as their name implies, “neutral.”  They do not “propel” evolution forward in any significant fashion. 1. He is a member of the Society for Neuroscience, and was listed in the 2001-2002 edition of Who’s Who Among Scientists and Researchers. lm_hour=a.getHours();lm_hour=((lm_hour<10)? [RETURN TO TEXT], [24]  Cartwright, John, Ref. Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, would be like purchasing a small number of tickets, but giving each of them a different number. He concluded: Dr. Thomas’ money is perfectly safe. In fact, quite the opposite would be true. and Ph.D. degrees in microbiology. '0':'')+lm_minute; That is to say, they constantly have to “run to try to improve” (and the development of sex would be one way of accomplishing that). [RETURN TO TEXT], [42]  Mayr, Ernst, Ref. [RETURN TO TEXT], [32]  Ridley, Mark, Ref. [RETURN TO TEXT], [20]  Cartwright, John, Ref. A single individual cannot evolve alone; evolution is the process of changing the gene frequencies within a gene pool. lm_day=a.getDate();lm_day=((lm_day<10)? Evolution is fascinating because it attempts to answer one of the most basic human questions: Where did life, and human beings, come from? One evolutionary theory of gender is mate selection. In contrast, in areas where the environment is unstable (such as at high altitudes or in small bodies or water), asexual reproduction is rife. Michod, The Evolution of Sex: DNA Repair Hypothesis, The Sociobiology of Sexual and Reproductive Strategies, ed. Why are babies born young? [RETURN TO TEXT], [14]  Ridley, Matt, The Red Queen Viking, London, p. 254, 1993. Remember that an evolutionary explanation of behaviour is one that shows how the behaviour can increase the chances of an individual passing on their genes and/or having healthy children. At some point authors must be questioned as to the rationale in their thinking? 31, p. 104. Let's celebrate the natural variety of human existence! [RETURN TO TEXT], [16]  Zimmer, Carl, Ref. How did sex come to exist? The highly complex and intricate manner in which the human body reproduces offspring is not a matter of mere chance or a “lucky role of the dice.”  Rather, it is the product of an intelligent Creator. [RETURN TO TEXT], [8]  Ridley, Ref. Yet there is an even more important question than why sex exists. Instead, we are encouraged to make decisions based on our personal strengths, interests, and feelings. Mutations are primarily the result of mistakes that occur during DNA replication. A central claim of evolutionary psychology is that the brain (and therefore the mind) evolved to solve problems encountered by our hunter-gatherer ancestors during the upper Pleistocene period over 10,000 years ago. Anyone would be fair game. According to scientists, the very first organisms to dare engage in sex were more like Adam and Steve than Adam and Eve. Yet finding and explaining that advantage seems to have eluded our evolutionary colleagues. The presentation of women and femininity in history began centuries ago, most influentially with The Book of the City of Ladies (1405) by the French writer Christine de Pisan.Right through the early twentieth century amateur authors writing to support themselves created a rich social history of women and femininity. Yet, we never learn exactly when or how independent male and female sexes originated. added]. Or, second, a mutation can occur via errors during the replication process itself. document.write(lm_day+' '+monthName[lm_month-1]+' '+lm_year); Lewis Thomas, the highly regarded medical doctor who served for many years as the president and chancellor of the prestigious Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in Manhattan, was unable to contain either his enthusiasm or his praise for the system we know as “sexual reproduction.”  In his book, The Medusa and the Snail, he wrote about the “miracle” of how one sperm cell forms with one egg cell to produce the cell we know as a zygote, which, nine months later, will become a newborn human being. It is the complexity of this process, and the manner in which it is copied from generation to generation, which practically drove Mark Ridley to distraction in The Cooperative Gene. According to the evolutionaryapproach, genderdifferencesare neither deliberate nor conscious; they exist because they enhanced or helped men and women perform particular types of roles in the past. They claim that the maintenance of sex is therefore a “nonscientific” question that “leads to intellectual mischief and confusion.”[6]  This implies, however, that sex is useless, and that it has been retained through the years merely by accident. In doing so, they offer clues to the mystery of why and how the sexes ever evolved. If you haven't read Roughgarden's "Evolution's Rainbow" yet, you should. But we would suggest that there is no naturalistic explanation at all for the origin or maintenance of sex. lm_second=a.getSeconds();lm_second=((lm_second<10)? • The condition of being female or male; biological sex. Yet if that is the case, why, then, have the bacteria themselves remained virtually unchanged—from an evolutionary viewpoint—for billions of years of Earth history? monthName[1] = 'February' a kind of “accidental holdover” from the era of single-celled organisms. Gender represents an abstract interpretation of sex and this notion is simply a societal construct. Is sex the product of a historical accident or the product of an intelligent Creator? 3, pp. He currently serves as the Director of Scientific Information at Apologetics Press, and as associate editor of Reason & Revelation. monthName[10] = 'November' The evolution of sex (and its accompanying reproductive capability) is not a favorite topic of discussion in most evolutionary circles, because no matter how many theories evolutionists conjure up (and there are several), they still must surmount the enormous hurdle of explaining the origin of the first fully functional female and the first fully functional male necessary to begin the process. Evolutionary biology is unable to reveal why animals would abandon asexual reproduction in favor of more costly and inefficient sexual reproduction. But that’s another story. And the critical nature of meiosis to life as we know it has been acknowledged (albeit perhaps begrudgingly) even by evolutionists. In his book, The Masterpiece of Nature: The Evolution of Genetics and Sexuality, Graham Bell described the dilemma in the following manner: The same year that Bell released his book, well-known evolutionist Philip Kitcher noted: “Despite some ingenious suggestions by orthodox Darwinians, there is no convincing Darwinian history for the emergence of sexual reproduction.”[2]  Evolutionists since have freely admitted that the origin of gender and sexual reproduction still remains one of the most difficult problems in biology (see, for example, Maynard-Smith, 1986, p. 35). The famous Stanford University geneticist, Luigi Cavalli-Sforza (who is the head of the International Human Genome Project), addressed this fact when he wrote: In addressing the complete ineffectiveness of mutations as an alleged evolutionary mechanism, Dr. Grass� observed: Grass� is not the only prominent evolutionist to take such a view in regard to mutations as an ineffectual driving force for evolution. [RETURN TO TEXT], Bert Thompson is a graduate of Abilene Christian University, where he earned a B.S. In his book, Evolution of Living Organisms, the eminent French zoologist, Pierre-Paul Grass�, raised this very point. Why restrict our options? In his book, Evolution and Human Behavior, John Cartwright concluded: Indeed, the evidence does suggest “that species go for vast periods of time without changing much.”  Consider the following admission in light of that point. Evolution and Gender. One leading theory goes back to the bizarre nature of certain machinery we all carry around in our cells — little engines known as mitochondria that help convert food to energy. Differences in sexual behaviour between men and women can be explained by looking at the different roles in child bearing and raising. Conspicuous viewers must be aware of what the media is presenting to them, and make sure they're not actively participating in a culture of oppression. Jealousy seems to be an unique emotion among other negative emotions. It is one thing to develop a theory or hypothesis to explain something that already exists, but it is entirely another to develop a theory or hypothesis to explain why that something (in this case, sex) does exist. “It’s a little like using a condom,” says Hurst. Sex brought the variations that could allow organisms to survive change.”[13]  Matt Ridley added: It would be “twice as good” or “twice as fit” of course, because it had twice the genetic endowment (having received half from each of the two parents). added]. [RETURN TO TEXT], [3]  Ridley, Mark, The Cooperative Gene, The Free Press, New York, pp. [Somatic cells reproduce via the process of mitosis, which maintains the species’ standard chromosome number; gametes are produced via the process of meiosis, which halves that number. In essence, this means examining the differing reproductive challenges faced by the sexes throughout our species’ history, and linking these with psychological and behavioural characteristics. [19]  His research suggested that the probability of organisms becoming extinct bears no relationship to how long they already may have survived. monthName[5] = 'June' He also earned a Ph.D. in neurobiology and anatomy from the College of Medicine at the University of Tennessee in Memphis. The point of the question is this. degree in biology. In his 2001 book, Evolution: The Triumph of an Idea, Carl Zimmer admitted: From an evolutionary viewpoint, sex definitely is “an inefficient way to reproduce.”  Think about all the sexual process entails, including the complexity involved in reproducing the information carried within the DNA. monthName = new Array(12) Many organisms, including some fungi, algae and single-celled pond-swimmers, still practice isogamy. The essential idea behind the Lottery Principle is that since sex introduces variability, organisms would have a better chance of producing offspring that will survive if they reproduce a range of types rather than merely more of the same. Genderrefers to the concepts o masculine and feminine whereas sex is the biological fact of being a male or female. As they have struggled to explain the existence of sexual reproduction in nature, evolutionists have suggested four different (and sometimes contradictory) theories, known in the literature as: (1) the Lottery Principle; (2) the Tangled Bank Hypothesis; (3) the Red Queen Hypothesis; and (4) the DNA Repair Hypothesis. 31, p. 98. The Tangled Bank Hypothesis suggests that sex evolved in order to prepare offspring for the complicated world around them. An evolutionary interpretation of the effect of gender and sexual orientation on human mate selection preferences, as indicated by an analysis of personal advertisements. That’s because sex was invented before heterosexuality — before males or females, for that matter. A single parent is all that is required. When pressed to answer questions such as, “Where did males and females actually come from?,” “What is the evolutionary origin of sex?,” evolutionists become silent. But if you’re isogamous, you’re exchanging same-sized gametes instead of sperm and eggs. Evidence for this explanation for the evolution of sex is provided by comparison of the rate of molecular evolution of genes for kinases and immunoglobulins in the immune system with genes coding other proteins. In addressing this very issue, Maddox asked quizzically: Exactly our point! If we all descended from these single-celled creatures, as Margulis and Sagan have suggested, then why was the simple-yet-efficient method of asexual reproduction set aside in favor of sexual reproduction? As Mark Ridley begrudgingly admitted: “Sex is not used simply for want of an alternative. monthName[2] = 'March' In sexual organisms, problems also can arise in regard to tissue rejection between the mother and the newly formed embryo. It states men have evolved a greater desire to have causal sex in order to produce as many offspring as possible to pass on their genes. Why is this the case? As Carl Zimmer wrote under the title of “Evolution from Within” in his volume, Parasite Rex: “A line of clones might do well enough in a forest, but what if that forest changed over a few centuries to a prairie? a=new Date(); [RETURN TO TEXT], [22]  Cartwright, John, Ref. [RETURN TO TEXT], [47]  Ackerman, Jennifer, Ref. [RETURN TO TEXT], [25]  Cartwright, John, Ref. Additionally, various kinds of incompatibility factors (such as the blood Rh factor between mother and child) pass along more “costs” (some of which can be life threatening) that are automatically inherent in this “expensive” means of reproduction. But what does all of this have to do with the origin of sex? Killers only mate with non-killers and you end up with two mating types. [RETURN TO TEXT], [40]  Grass�, Pierre-Paul, Ref. January 2001; ... Dupre´ considers recent attempts to explain gendered difference in human behaviour by an appeal to evolutionary theory, particularly in … The first sexual beings to emerge perhaps 2.5 billion years ago were what biologists call isogamous — which is a little like being gay, except everyone is somewhere between male and female. It is those very facts—that meiosis allegedly has “evolved” the ability to halve the chromosome number (but only for gametes), and that it actually can provide “unlimited new material”—which make the meiotic process so incredible. Some young boys show an early preference for dressing and behaving as girls; some young girls are convinced they should be boys. A very large number of people do not believe this, which is something that keeps evolution in the news. What scientists find puzzling is that most of them still use a system of two sexes — in their case plus and minus rather than male and female. Most mutations are deleterious (see Cartwright[22]). As it turns out, the common “survival of the fittest” mentality cannot begin to explain the high cost of first evolving, and then maintaining, the sexual apparatus. Sir John Maddox, who served for over twenty-five years as the distinguished editor of Nature, the prestigious journal published by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (and who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 for “multiple contributions to science”), authored an amazing book titled What Remains to be Discovered in which he addressed the topic of the origin of sex, and stated forthrightly: The fact that the advantages of sex “are not obvious” is well known (though perhaps not often discussed) within academia. Due to popularity, we aren't as limited by a gender role when it comes to our career and family choices. And, in fact, evidence is beginning to mount that perhaps the DNA Repair Hypothesis is itself in need of “repair.”  As Maddox noted: We must not overlook an important fact throughout all of this: These theories valiantly attempt to explain why sex exists now, but they do not explain the origin of sex. 6, p. 253. • Females or males considered as a group: expressions used by one gender. monthName[7] = 'August' These new unfriendly mitochondria could start to spread through the human population at our expense. As Cartwright put it: But, as Cartwright went on to admit: “This theory is not without its problems and critics.”[25]  One of those problems, expressed by Mark Ridley (no kin to Matt), is: “We do not know for sure that sex exists to purge bad genes.”[26]  No, we certainly do not! How, exactly, did nature accomplish the “invention” of the marvelous process we know as sex? There will always be differences between men and women. 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